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factors affecting resistance of a conductor

Resistance depends on
Temperature
Material of conductor
Length
Cross-sectional area


Temperature

The resistance of a metallic conductor increases as the temperature increases e.g. copper
The resistance of a semiconductor/insulator decreases as the temperature increases e.g. thermistor.

length
Resistance of a uniform conductor is directly proportional to its length.
i.e. R  L

Cross-sectional area
Resistance of a uniform conductor is inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area.
i.e. R  1

Material
The material also affects the resistance of a conductor by a fixed amount for different materials. This is known as resistivity ().

R = L  = constant of proportionality
A Unit: ohm meter  m

 = Rd 2 (For a wire with circular cross-sectional area)
 
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